Slovakia /slÉµËvaËkiÉ/ (officially the Slovak Republic; Slovak: Slovensko (Slovak pronunciation: [ËslovÉnsko]), long form SlovenskÃ¡ republika (Slovak pronunciation: [ËslovÉnskaË ËrÉpublika])) is a sovereign state in Central Europe. It has a population of over five million and an area of about 49,000 square kilometres (19,000Â sqÂ mi). Slovakia is bordered by the Czech Republic and Austria to the west, Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east and Hungary to the south. The largest city is the capital, Bratislava, and the second largest is KoÅ¡ice. Slovakia is a member state of the European Union, Eurozone, Schengen Area, NATO, the United Nations, the OECD and the WTO, among others. The official language is Slovak, a member of the Slavic language family.
The Slavsâ"ancestors of the Slovaksâ"arrived in the territory of present-day Slovakia in the 5th and 6th centuries during the migration period. In the 7th century, Slavs inhabiting this territory played a significant role in the creation of Samo's Empire, historically the first Slavic state which had its center in Western Slovakia. During the 9th century, Slavic ancestors of the Slovaks established another political entity, the Principality of Nitra, which later together with the Principality of Moravia, formed Great Moravia. After the 10th century the territory of today's Slovakia was gradually integrated into the Kingdom of Hungary, which itself became part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire or Habsburg Empire. After WWI and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the nation of Slovaks and Czechs established their mutual state - Czechoslovakia. A separate Slovak state existed during World WarÂ II and was a client state of Nazi Germany (from 1939 to 1944). In 1945 Czechoslovakia was reestablished. The present-day Slovakia became an independent state on 1 January 1993 after the peaceful dissolution of Czechoslovakia.
Slovakia is a high-income advanced economy with one of the fastest growth rates in the European Union and the OECD. The country joined the European Union in 2004 and the Eurozone on 1 January 2009.
Radiocarbon dating puts the oldest surviving archaeological artifacts from Slovakia â" found near NovÃ© Mesto nad VÃ¡hom â" at 270,000Â BC, in the Early Paleolithic era. These ancient tools, made by the Clactonian technique, bear witness to the ancient habitation of Slovakia.
Other stone tools from the Middle Paleolithic era (200,000 â" 80,000Â BC) come from the PrÃ©vÃ´t (PrepoÅ¡tskÃ¡) cave near Bojnice and from other nearby sites. The most important discovery from that era is a Neanderthal cranium (c. 200,000 BC), discovered near GÃ¡novce, a village in northern Slovakia.
Archaeologists have found prehistoric human skeletons in the region, as well as numerous objects and vestiges of the Gravettian culture, principally in the river valleys of Nitra, Hron, IpeÄ¾, VÃ¡h and as far as the city of Å½ilina, and near the foot of the Vihorlat, Inovec, and TribeÄ mountains, as well as in the Myjava Mountains. The most well-known finds include the oldest female statue made of mammoth-bone (22,800Â BC), the famous Venus of Moravany. The statue was found in the 1940s in Moravany nad VÃ¡hom near PieÅ¡Å¥any. Numerous necklaces made of shells from Cypraca thermophile gastropods of the Tertiary period have come from the sites of ZÃ¡kovskÃ¡, Podkovice, Hubina, and RadoÅ¡inare. These findings provide the most ancient evidence of commercial exchanges carried out between the Mediterranean and Central Europe.
The Bronze Age in Slovakia went through three stages of development, stretching from 2000 to 800Â BC. Major cultural, economic, and political development can be attributed to the significant growth in production of copper, especially in central Slovakia (for example in Å pania Dolina) and northwest Slovakia. Copper became a stable source of prosperity for the local population.
After the disappearance of the Äakany and Velatice cultures, the Lusatian people expanded building of strong and complex fortifications, with the large permanent buildings and administrative centers. Excavations of Lusatian hill forts document the substantial development of trade and agriculture at that period. The richness and the diversity of tombs increased considerably. The inhabitants of the area manufactured arms, shields, jewelry, dishes, and statues.
The arrival of tribes from Thrace disrupted the people of the Kalenderberg culture, who lived in the hamlets located on the plain (SereÄ) and in the hill forts like MolpÃr, near Smolenice, in the Little Carpathians. During Hallstatt times, monumental burial mounds were erected in western Slovakia, with princely equipment consisting of richly decorated vessels, ornaments and decorations. The burial rites consisted entirely of cremation. The common people were buried in flat urnfield cemeteries. A special role was given to weaving and the production of textiles. The local power of the "Princes" of the Hallstatt period disappeared in Slovakia during the last century before the middle of first millennium BCE, after strife between the Scytho-Thracian people and locals, resulting in abandonment of the old hill-forts. Relatively depopulated areas soon caught interest of emerging Celtic tribes, who advanced from the south towards the north, following the Slovak rivers, peacefully integrating into the remnants of the local population.
Â§La TÃ¨ne Period
From around 500Â BC, the territory of modern-day Slovakia was settled by Celts, who built powerful oppida on the sites of modern-day Bratislava and Devin. Biatecs, silver coins with inscriptions in the Latin alphabet, represent the first known use of writing in Slovakia. At the northern regions, remnants of the local population of Lusatian origin, together with Celtic and later Dacian influence, gave rise to the unique Puchov culture, with advanced crafts and iron-working, many hill-forts and fortified settlements of central type with coinage of the "Velkobysterecky" type (no inscriptions, with a horse on one side and a head on the other). This culture is often connected with the Celtic tribe mentioned in Roman sources as Cotini.
From 2Â AD, the expanding Roman Empire established and maintained a series of outposts around and just north of the Danube, the largest of which were known as Carnuntum (whose remains are on the main road halfway between Vienna and Bratislava) and Brigetio (present-day SzÃ¶ny at the Slovak-Hungarian border). Such Roman border settlements were built on the present area of Rusovce, currently a suburb of Bratislava. The military fort was surrounded by a civilian vicus and several farms of the villa rustica type. The name of this settlement was Gerulata. The military fort had an auxiliary cavalry unit, approximately 300 horses strong, modeled after the Cananefates. The remains of Roman buildings have also survived in Devin castle (present-day downtown Bratislava), the suburbs of Dubravka and Stupava, and Bratislava Castle Hill.
Near the northernmost line of the Roman hinterlands, the Limes Romanus, there existed the winter camp of Laugaricio (modern-day TrenÄÃn) where the Auxiliary of LegionÂ II fought and prevailed in a decisive battle over the Germanic Quadi tribe in 179Â AD during the Marcomannic Wars. The Kingdom of Vannius, a kingdom founded by the Germanic Suebian tribes of Quadi and Marcomanni, as well as several small Germanic and Celtic tribes, including the Osi and Cotini, existed in Western and Central Slovakia from 8â"6Â BC to 179Â AD.
Â§Great invasions from the 4th to 7th centuries
In the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD, the Huns began to leave the Central Asian steppes. They crossed the Danube in 377Â AD and occupied Pannonia, which they used for 75Â years as their base for launching looting-raids into Western Europe. However, Attila's death in 453 brought about the disappearance of the Hun tribe. In 568, a Turko-Mongol tribal confederacy, the Avars, conducted its own invasion into the Middle Danube region. The Avars occupied the lowlands of the Pannonian Plain, and established an empire dominating the Carpathian Basin.
In 623, the Slavic population living in the western parts of Pannonia seceded from their empire after a revolution led by Samo, a Frankish merchant. After 626, the Avar power started a gradual decline but its reign lasted to 804.
The Slavic tribes settled in the territory of present-day Slovakia in the 5th century. Western Slovakia was the centre of Samo's empire in the 7th century. A Slavic state known as the Principality of Nitra arose in the 8th century and its ruler Pribina had the first known Christian church of Slovakia consecrated by 828. Together with neighboring Moravia, the principality formed the core of the Great Moravian Empire from 833. The high point of this Slavonic empire came with the arrival of Saints Cyril and Methodius in 863, during the reign of Prince Rastislav, and the territorial expansion under King Svatopluk I.
Â§Great Moravia (830â"before 907)
Great Moravia arose around 830 when MojmÃr I unified the Slavic tribes settled north of the Danube and extended the Moravian supremacy over them. When MojmÃr I endeavoured to secede from the supremacy of the king of East Francia in 846, King Louis the German deposed him and assisted MoimÃr's nephew Rastislav (846â"870) in acquiring the throne. The new monarch pursued an independent policy: after stopping a Frankish attack in 855, he also sought to weaken influence of Frankish priests preaching in his realm. Rastislav asked the Byzantine Emperor Michael III to send teachers who would interpret Christianity in the Slavic vernacular.
Upon Rastislav's request, two brothers, Byzantine officials and missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius came in 863. Cyril developed the first Slavic alphabet and translated the Gospel into the Old Church Slavonic language. Rastislav was also preoccupied with the security and administration of his state. Numerous fortified castles built throughout the country are dated to his reign and some of them (e.g.,Â Dowina, sometimes identified with DevÃn Castle) are also mentioned in connection with Rastislav by Frankish chronicles.
During Rastislav's reign, the Principality of Nitra was given to his nephew Svatopluk as an appanage. The rebellious prince allied himself with the Franks and overthrew his uncle in 870. Similarly to his predecessor, Svatopluk I (871â"894) assumed the title of the king (rex). During his reign, the Great Moravian Empire reached its greatest territorial extent, when not only present-day Moravia and Slovakia but also present-day northern and central Hungary, Lower Austria, Bohemia, Silesia, Lusatia, southern Poland and northern Serbia belonged to the empire, but the exact borders of his domains are still disputed by modern authors. Svatopluk also withstood attacks of the semi-nomadic Magyar tribes and the Bulgarian Empire, although sometimes it was he who hired the Magyars when waging war against East Francia.
In 880, Pope JohnÂ VIII set up an independent ecclesiastical province in Great Moravia with Archbishop Methodius as its head. He also named the German cleric Wiching the Bishop of Nitra.
After the death of Prince Svatopluk in 894, his sons MojmÃrÂ II (894â"906?) and SvatoplukÂ II succeeded him as the Prince of Great Moravia and the Prince of Nitra respectively. However, they started to quarrel for domination of the whole empire. Weakened by an internal conflict as well as by constant warfare with Eastern Francia, Great Moravia lost most of its peripheral territories.
In the meantime, the semi-nomadic Magyar tribes, possibly having suffered defeat from the similarly nomadic Pechenegs, left their territories east of the Carpathian Mountains, invaded the Carpathian Basin and started to occupy the territory gradually around 896. Their armies' advance may have been promoted by continuous wars among the countries of the region whose rulers still hired them occasionally to intervene in their struggles.
We do not know what happened with both MojmÃrÂ II and SvatoplukÂ II because they are not mentioned in written sources after 906. In three battles (4â"5 July and 9 August 907) near Bratislava, the Magyars routed Bavarian armies. Some historians put this year as the date of the breakup of the Great Moravian Empire, due to the Hungarian conquest; other historians take the date a little bit earlier (to 902).
Great Moravia left behind a lasting legacy in Central and Eastern Europe. The Glagolitic script and its successor Cyrillic were disseminated to other Slavic countries, charting a new path in their sociocultural development. The administrative system of Great Moravia may have influenced the development of the administration of the Kingdom of Hungary.
Â§Kingdom of Hungary (1000â"1918)
Following the disintegration of the Great Moravian Empire at the turn of the 10th century, the Hungarians annexed the territory comprising modern Slovakia. After their defeat on the Lech River they were forced to abandon their nomadic and rapacious ways; they settled in the centre of the Carpathian valley, adopted Christianity and began to build a new state â" the Hungarian kingdom.
From the 11th century, when the territory inhabited by the Slavic-speaking population of Danubian Basin was incorporated into the Kingdom of Hungary, until 1918, when the Austro-Hungarian empire collapsed, the territory of modern Slovakia was an integral part of the Hungarian state. The ethnic composition became more diverse with the arrival of the Carpathian Germans in the 13th century, and the Jews in the 14th century.
A significant decline in the population resulted from the invasion of the Mongols in 1241 and the subsequent famine. However, in medieval times the area of the present-day Slovakia was characterized rather by burgeoning towns, construction of numerous stone castles, and the cultivation of the arts. In 1465, King Matthias Corvinus founded the Hungarian Kingdom's third university, in Pressburg (Bratislava), but it was closed in 1490 after his death.
Before the Ottoman Empire's expansion into Hungary and the occupation of Buda in 1541, the capital of the Kingdom of Hungary (under the name of Royal Hungary) moved to Pressburg (in Slovak: PreÅ¡porok at that time, currently Bratislava). Pressburg became the capital city of the Royal Hungary in 1536. But the Ottoman wars and frequent insurrections against the Habsburg Monarchy also inflicted a great deal of devastation, especially in the rural areas. As the Turks withdrew from Hungary in the late 17th century, the importance of the territory comprising modern Slovakia decreased, although Pressburg retained its status as the capital of Hungary until 1848, when it was transferred to Buda.
During the revolution of 1848â"49, the Slovaks supported the Austrian Emperor, hoping for independence from the Hungarian part of the Dual Monarchy, but they failed to achieve their aim. Thereafter relations between the nationalities deteriorated (see Magyarization), culminating in the secession of Slovakia from Hungary after World War I.
In 1918, Slovakia and the regions of Bohemia, Moravia, Czech Silesia and Carpathian Ruthenia formed a common state, Czechoslovakia, with the borders confirmed by the Treaty of Saint Germain and Treaty of Trianon. In 1919, during the chaos following the breakup of Austria-Hungary, Czechoslovakia was formed with numerous Germans and Hungarians within the newly set borders. A Slovak patriot Milan Rastislav Å tefÃ¡nik (1880â"1919), who helped organize Czechoslovak regiments against Austria-Hungary during the First World War, died in a plane crash. In the peace following the World War, Czechoslovakia emerged as a sovereign European state. It provided what were at the time rather extensive rights to its minorities and remained the only democracy in this part of Europe in the interwar period.
During the Interwar period, democratic Czechoslovakia was allied with France, and also with Romania and Yugoslavia (Little Entente); however, the Locarno Treaties of 1925 left East European security open. Both Czechs and Slovaks enjoyed a period of relative prosperity. There was progress in not only the development of the country's economy, but also culture and educational opportunities. The minority Germans came to accept their role in the new country and relations with Austria were good. Yet the Great Depression caused a sharp economic downturn, followed by political disruption and insecurity in Europe.
Thereafter Czechoslovakia came under continuous pressure from the revisionist governments of Germany and Hungary. Eventually this led to the Munich Agreement of September 1938, which allowed Nazi Germany to partially dismember the country by occupying what was called the Sudetenland, a region with a German-speaking majority and bordering Germany and Austria. The remainder of "rump" Czechoslovakia was renamed Czecho-Slovakia and included a greater degree of Slovak political autonomy. Southern and eastern Slovakia, however, was reclaimed by Hungary at the First Vienna Award of November 1938.
Â§World War II
After the Munich Agreement and its Vienna Award, Nazi Germany threatened to annex part of Slovakia and allow the remaining regions to be partitioned by Hungary or Poland unless independence was declared. Thus, Slovakia seceded from Czecho-Slovakia in March 1939 and allied itself, as demanded by Germany, with Hitler's coalition. The government of the First Slovak Republic, led by Jozef Tiso and Vojtech Tuka, was strongly influenced by Germany and gradually became a puppet regime in many respects.
Most Jews were deported from the country and taken to German death camps. Thousands of Jews, however, remained to labor in Slovak work camps in SereÄ, Vyhne, and NovÃ¡ky. Tiso, through the granting of presidential exceptions, has been credited with saving as many as 40,000 Jews during the war, although other estimates place the figure closer to 4,000 or even 1,000. Nevertheless, under Tiso's government, the vast majority of Slovakia's Jewish population (between 75,000-105,000 individuals) were murdered. Tiso became the only European leader to pay Nazi authorities to deport his country's Jews.
After it became clear that the Soviet Red Army was going to push the Nazis out of eastern and central Europe, an anti-Nazi resistance movement launched a fierce armed insurrection, known as the Slovak National Uprising, near the end of summer 1944. A bloody German occupation and a guerilla war followed. The territory of Slovakia was liberated by Soviet and Romanian forces by the end of April 1945.
Â§Communist party rule (1948â"1989)
After World WarÂ II, Czechoslovakia was reconstituted and Jozef Tiso was hanged in 1947 for collaboration with the Nazis. More than 80,000 Hungarians and 32,000 Germans were forced to leave Slovakia, in a series of population transfers initiated by the Allies at the Potsdam Conference. This expulsion is still a source of tension between Slovakia and Hungary. Out of about 130,000 Carpathian Germans in Slovakia in 1938, by 1947 only some 20,000 remained.
Czechoslovakia came under the influence of the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact after a coup in 1948. The country was occupied by the Warsaw Pact forces (with the exception of Romania) in 1968, ending a period of liberalization under the leadership of Alexander DubÄek. In 1969 Czechoslovakia became a federation of the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic.
Â§Establishment of the Slovak Republic (1993-)
The end of Communist rule in Czechoslovakia in 1989, during the peaceful Velvet Revolution, was followed once again by the country's dissolution, this time into two successor states. In July 1992 Slovakia, led by Prime Minister VladimÃr MeÄiar, declared itself a sovereign state, meaning that its laws took precedence over those of the federal government. Throughout the autumn of 1992, MeÄiar and Czech Prime Minister VÃ¡clav Klaus negotiated the details for disbanding the federation. In November the federal parliament voted to dissolve the country officially on 31 December 1992.
The Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic went their separate ways after 1 January 1993, an event sometimes called the Velvet Divorce. Slovakia has remained a close partner with the Czech Republic. Both countries cooperate with Hungary and Poland in the VisegrÃ¡d Group. Slovakia became a member of NATO on 29 March 2004 and of the European Union on 1 May 2004. On 1 January 2009, Slovakia adopted the Euro as its national currency.
Slovakia lies between latitudes 47Â° and 50Â° N, and longitudes 16Â° and 23Â° E.
The Slovak landscape is noted primarily for its mountainous nature, with the Carpathian Mountains extending across most of the northern half of the country. Amongst these mountain ranges are the high peaks of the Fatra-Tatra Area (including Tatra mountains, Greater Fatra and Lesser Fatra), Slovak Ore Mountains, Slovak Central Mountains or Beskids. The largest lowland is the fertile Danubian Lowland in the southwest, followed by the Eastern Slovak Lowland in the southeast.
Tatras, with 29 peaks higher than 2,500 metres (8,202 feet) AMSL, are the highest mountain range in the Carpathian Mountains. Tatras occupy an area of 750 square kilometres (290Â sqÂ mi), of which the greater part 600 square kilometres (232Â sqÂ mi) lies in Slovakia. They are divided into several parts.
To the north, close to the Polish border, are the High Tatras which are a popular hiking and skiing destination and home to many scenic lakes and valleys as well as the highest point in Slovakia, the GerlachovskÃ½ Å¡tÃt at 2,655 metres (8,711Â ft) and the country's highly symbolic mountain KrivÃ¡Å. To the west are the Western Tatras with their highest peak of Rysy at 2,503 metres (8,212Â ft) and to the east are the Belianske Tatras, smallest by area.
Separated from the Tatras proper by the valley of the VÃ¡h river are the Low Tatras, with their highest peak of Äumbier at 2,043 metres (6,703Â ft).
The Tatra mountain range is represented as one of the three hills on the coat of arms of Slovakia.
There are 9 national parks in Slovakia:
Slovakia has hundreds of caves and caverns under its mountains, out of which 15 are open to the public. Most of the caves have stalagmites rising from the ground and stalactites hanging from above. There are currently five Slovak caves under UNESCO's World Heritage Site status. They are DobÅ¡inskÃ¡ Ice Cave, Domica, Gombasek Cave, JasovskÃ¡ Cave and OchtinskÃ¡ Aragonite Cave. Other caves open to public include Belianska Cave, DemÃ¤novskÃ¡ Cave of Liberty, DemÃ¤novskÃ¡ Ice Cave or Bystrianska Cave
Most of the rivers stem in Slovak mountains. Some are only passing through and the others make a natural border with surrounding countries (more than 620 kilometres (385Â mi)). For example Dunajec (17 kilometres (11Â mi)) to the north, Danube (172 kilometres (107Â mi)) to the south or Morava (119 kilometres (74Â mi)) to the West. The total length of the rivers on Slovak territory is 49,774 kilometres (30,928Â mi).
The longest river in Slovakia is VÃ¡h (403 kilometres (250Â mi)), the shortest is Äierna voda. Other important and large rivers are Myjava, Nitra (197 kilometres (122Â mi)), Orava, Hron (298 kilometres (185Â mi)), HornÃ¡d (193 kilometres (120Â mi)), SlanÃ¡ (110 kilometres (68Â mi)), IpeÄ¾ (232 kilometres (144Â mi), making the border with Hungary), Bodrog, Laborec, Latorica and Ondava.
The biggest volume of discharge in Slovak rivers is during spring, when the snow is melting from the mountains. The only exception is Danube, whose discharge is the biggest during summer when the snow is melting in the Alps. Danube is the largest river that flows through Slovakia.
There are around 175 naturally formed tarns in High Tatras. With an area of 20 ha and its depth of 53 metres (174Â ft), VeÄ¾kÃ© Hincovo pleso is the largest and the deepest tarn in Slovakia. Other tarns in the High Tatras include Å trbskÃ© pleso, PopradskÃ© pleso, SkalnatÃ© pleso, ZbojnÃcke pleso, VelickÃ© pleso, Å½abie pleso, KrivÃ¡nske zelenÃ© pleso or RohÃ¡Äske plesÃ¡. Other than in the High Tatras there are VrbickÃ© pleso in Low Tatras, MorskÃ© oko and VinnÃ© jazero in Vihorlat Mountains or JezerskÃ© jazero in SpiÅ¡skÃ¡ Magura.
The largest dams on the river VÃ¡h are LiptovskÃ¡ Mara and SÄºÅava. Other well known dams are OravskÃ¡ priehrada in the north, ZemplÃnska Å Ãrava and DomaÅ¡a in the east, SeneckÃ© jazerÃ¡, ZlatÃ© piesky or ZelenÃ¡ voda in the west.
The Slovak climate lies between the temperate and continental climate zones with relatively warm summers and cold, cloudy and humid winters. Temperature extremes are in interval between â'41 to 40.3Â Â°C (â'41.8 to 104.5Â Â°F) although temperatures below â'30Â Â°C (â'22Â Â°F) are rare. The weather differs from the mountainous North to the plain South.
The warmest region is Bratislava and Southern Slovakia where the temperatures may rise up to 30Â Â°C (86Â Â°F) in summer, occasionally to 37Â Â°C (99Â Â°F). During night, the temperatures rise up to 20Â Â°C (68Â Â°F). The daily temperatures in winter average in the range of â'5Â Â°C (23Â Â°F) up to 10Â Â°C (50Â Â°F). During night it may be freezing, but usually not below â'10Â Â°C (14Â Â°F).
Summer in Northern Slovakia is usually mild with temperatures around 25Â Â°C (77Â Â°F) (less in the mountains). Winters are colder in the mountains, where the snow usually lasts until March and April and the night temperatures go down to â'20Â Â°C (â'4Â Â°F) and colder.
Slovakia signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 19 May 1993, and became a party to the convention on 25 August 1994. It has subsequently produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, which was received by the convention on 2 November 1998.
The biodiversity of Slovakia comprises animals (such as annellids, arthropods, molluscs, nematodes and vertebrates), fungi (Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, Glomeromycota and Zygomycota), micro-organisms (including Mycetozoa), and plants.
Over 4000 species of fungi have been recorded from Slovakia. Of these, nearly 1500 are lichen-forming species Some of these fungi are undoubtedly endemic, but not enough is known to say how many. Of the lichen-forming species, about 40% have been classified as threatened in some way. About 7% are apparently extinct, 9% endangered, 17% vulnerable, and 7% rare. The conservation status of non-lichen-forming fungi in Slovakia is not well documented, but there is a red list for its larger fungi.
Â§Politics and government
Slovakia is a parliamentary democratic republic with a multi-party system. The last parliamentary elections were held on 10 March 2012 and two rounds of presidential elections took place on 15 and 29 March 2014.
The Slovak head of state is the president (currently Andrej Kiska), elected by direct popular vote for a five-year term. Most executive power lies with the head of government, the prime minister (currently Robert Fico), who is usually the leader of the winning party, but he/she needs to form a majority coalition in the parliament. The prime minister is appointed by the president. The remainder of the cabinet is appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister.
Slovakia's highest legislative body is the 150-seat unicameral National Council of the Slovak Republic (NÃ¡rodnÃ¡ rada Slovenskej republiky). Delegates are elected for a four-year term on the basis of proportional representation. Slovakia's highest judicial body is the Constitutional Court of Slovakia (ÃstavnÃ½ sÃºd), which rules on constitutional issues. The 13Â members of this court are appointed by the president from a slate of candidates nominated by parliament.
Slovakia has been a member state of the European Union and NATO since 2004. As a member of the United Nations (since 1993), Slovakia was, on 10 October 2005, elected to a two-year term on the UN Security Council from 2006 to 2007. Slovakia is also a member of WTO, OECD, OSCE, and other international organizations.
The Constitution of the Slovak Republic was ratified 1 September 1992, and became effective 1 January 1993). It was amended in September 1998 to allow direct election of the president and again in February 2001 due to EU admission requirements. The civil law system is based on Austro-Hungarian codes. The legal code was modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and to expunge the Marxistâ"Leninist legal theory. Slovakia accepts the compulsory International Court of Justice jurisdiction with reservations.
The president is the head of state and the formal head of the executive, though with very limited powers. The president is elected by direct, popular vote under the two-round system for a five-year term.
Following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president. Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister has to receive the majority in the parliament.
Slovakia has been a member of European Union since 2004. Slovakia has been an active participant in U.S.- and NATO-led military actions. There is a joint Czech-Slovak peacekeeping force in Kosovo.
Slovakia is a member of the United Nations and participates in its specialized agencies. It is a member of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the World Trade Organization (WTO), and the OECD. It also is part of the Visegrad Four (Slovakia, Hungary, Czech Republic, and Poland), a forum for discussing areas of common concern.
The Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic entered into a Customs Union upon the division of Czechoslovakia in 1993, which facilitates a relatively free flow of goods and services. Slovakia maintains diplomatic relations with 134 countries, primarily through its Ministry of Foreign Affairs. There are 44 embassies and 35 honorary consulates in Bratislava.
The Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic number 14,000 uniformed personnel. Slovakia joined NATO in March 2004. From 2006 the army transformed into a fully professional organization and compulsory military service was abolished.
Slovak Ground Forces are made up of two active mechanized infantry brigades. The Air and Air Defence Forces comprise one wing of fighters, one wing of utility helicopters, and one SAM brigade. Training and support forces comprise a National Support Element (Multifunctional Battalion, Transport Battalion, Repair Battalion), a garrison force of the capital city Bratislava, as well as a training battalion, and various logistics and communication and information bases. Miscellaneous forces under the direct command of the General Staff include the 5th Special Forces Regiment.
The U.S. State Department in 2010 reported:
- "The government generally respected the human rights of its citizens; however, there were problems in some areas. Notable human rights problems included some continuing reports of police mistreatment of Romani suspects and lengthy pretrial detention; restrictions on freedom of religion; concerns about the integrity of the judiciary, corruption in national government, local government, and government health services; violence against women and children; trafficking in women and children; and societal discrimination and violence against Roma and other minorities."
Human rights in Slovakia are guaranteed by the Constitution of Slovakia from the year 1992 and by multiple international laws signed in Slovakia between 1948 and 2006. Slovakia excludes multiple citizenships.
As for administrative division, Slovakia is subdivided into 8 krajov (singular â" kraj, usually translated as "region"), each of which is named after its principal city. Regions have enjoyed a certain degree of autonomy since 2002. Their self-governing bodies are referred to as Self-governing (or autonomous) Regions (sg. samosprÃ¡vny kraj, pl. samosprÃ¡vne kraje) or Upper-Tier Territorial Units (sg. vyÅ¡Å¡Ã ÃºzemnÃ½ celok, pl. vyÅ¡Å¡ie ÃºzemnÃ© celky, abbr. VÃC).
The "kraje" are subdivided into many okresov (sg. okres, usually translated as districts). Slovakia currently has 79Â districts.
In terms of economics and unemployment rate, the western regions are richer than eastern regions; however the relative difference is no bigger than in most EU countries having regional differences.
The Slovak economy is considered an advanced economy, with the country dubbed the "Tatra Tiger". Slovakia transformed from a centrally planned economy to a market-driven economy. Major privatizations are nearly complete, the banking sector is almost completely in private hands, and foreign investment has risen.
Before the financial crisis of 2007â"08, Slovakia had experienced high and sustained economic growth. In 2007 (with GDP growth of 10.5%), 2008 (6%) and 2010 (with 4%), Slovakia was the fastest growing economy in the European Union. In 2011 (with the GDP growth of 3.3%) and 2012 (GDP growth of 1.8%), Slovakia was the 2nd fastest growing Eurozone member after Estonia. Slovakia's GDP growth of 0.9% in 2013 remains one of the highest in the Eurozone.
The ratio of government debt to GDP in Slovakia reached 58% by the end of 2013.
Unemployment, peaking at 19% at the end of 1999, decreased to 7.5% in October 2008 according to the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. In addition to economic growth, migration of workers to other EU countries also contributed to this reduction. According to Eurostat, which uses a calculation method different from that of the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic, the unemployment rate in September 2012 is at 13.9% the third highest in the Eurozone (after Spain and Portugal).
Inflation dropped from an average annual rate of 12% in 2000 to just 3.3% in 2002, an election year, but it rose again in 2003â"2004 because of rising labor costs and taxes. It reached only 1% in 2010 which is the lowest recorded rate since 1993. The rate was at 4% in 2011.
Slovakia adopted the Euro currency on 1 January 2009 as the 16th member of the Eurozone. The euro in Slovakia was approved by the European commission on 7 May 2008. The Slovak koruna was revalued on 28 May 2008 to 30.126 for 1 euro, which was also the exchange rate for the euro.
Slovakia is an attractive country for foreign investors mainly because of its low wages, low tax rates and well educated labour force. In recent years, Slovakia has been pursuing a policy of encouraging foreign investment. FDI inflow grew more than 600% from 2000 and cumulatively reached an all-time high of $17.3Â billion in 2006, or around $22,000 per capita by the end of 2008.
Despite a sufficient number of researchers and a decent secondary educational system, Slovakia, along with other post-communist countries, still faces major challenges in the field of the knowledge economy. The business and public research and development expenditures are well below the EU average. The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, currently ranks Slovak secondary education the 30th in the world (placing it just below the United States and just above Spain).
In March 2008, the Ministry of Finance announced that Slovakia's economy is developed enough to stop being an aid receiver from the World Bank. Slovakia became an aid provider at the end of 2008.
Although Slovakia's GDP comes mainly from the tertiary (services) sector, the industrial sector also plays an important role within its economy. The main industry sectors are car manufacturing and electrical engineering. Since 2007, Slovakia has been the world's largest producer of cars per capita, with a total of 571,071 cars manufactured in the country in 2007 alone. There are currently three automobile assembly plants: Volkswagen's in Bratislava, PSA Peugeot CitroÃ«n's in Trnava and Kia Motors' Å½ilina Plant.
From electrical engineering companies, Sony has a factory at Nitra for LCD TV manufacturing, Samsung at Galanta for computer monitors and television sets manufacturing.
ESET is an IT security company from Bratislava with more than 500 employees worldwide at present. Their branch offices are in the United States, Ireland, United Kingdom, Argentina, Czech Republic, Singapore and Poland.
Bratislava's geographical position in Central Europe has long made Bratislava a crossroads for international trade traffic. Various ancient trade routes, such as the Amber Road and the Danube waterway, have crossed territory of present-day Bratislava. Today, Bratislava is the road, railway, waterway and airway hub.
In 2012, Slovakia produced a total of 28 393 GWh of electricity while at the same time consumed 28 786 GWh. The slightly higher level of consumption than the capacity of production (- 393 GWh) meant the country was not self-sufficient in energy sourcing. Slovakia imported electricity mainly from the Czech Republic (9 961 GWh - 73.6% of total import) and exported mainly to Hungary (10 231 GWh - 78.2% of total export).
Nuclear energy accounts for 53.8% of total electricity production in Slovakia, followed by 18.1% of thermal power energy, 15.1% by hydro power energy, 2% by solar energy, 9.6% by other sources and the rest 1.4% is imported.
The two nuclear power-plants in Slovakia are in JaslovskÃ© Bohunice and Mochovce, each of them containing two operating reactors. Prior to the accession of Slovakia to the EU in 2004, the government agreed to turn-off the V1 block of JaslovskÃ© Bohunice power-plant, built by Soviet Union in 1978. After deactivating the last of the two reactors of the V1 block in 2008, Slovakia instantly stopped being self-dependent in energy production. Currently there is another block (V2) with two active reactors in JaslovskÃ© Bohunice. It is scheduled for decommissioning in 2025. The nuclear power production in Slovakia sometimes draws attention to Austrian green-energy activists who occasionally organize protests and block the borders between the two countries.
There are four main highways D1 to D4 and eight express ways R1 to R8. Most of them are still in the planning phase.
The D1 motorway connects Bratislava to Trnava, Nitra, TrenÄÃn, Å½ilina and beyond, while the D2 motorway connects it to Prague, Brno and Budapest in the north-south direction. The D4Â motorway (an outer bypass), which would ease the pressure on Bratislava's highway system, is mostly at the planning stage.
The A6Â motorway to Vienna connects Slovakia directly to the Austrian motorway system and was opened on 19 November 2007.
In Bratislava there are currently five bridges standing over the Danube (ordered by the flow of the river): Lafranconi Bridge, NovÃ½ Most (The New Bridge), StarÃ½ most (The Old Bridge), Most Apollo and PrÃstavnÃ½ most (The Harbor Bridge).
The city's inner network of roadways is made on the radial-circular shape. Nowadays, the city experiences a sharp increase in the road traffic, increasing pressure on the road network. There are about 200,000 registered cars in Bratislava, (approximately 2 inhabitants per car).
Bratislava's M.Â R.Â Å tefÃ¡nik Airport is the main international airport in Slovakia. It is located 9Â kilometres (5.59 mi) northeast of the city centre. It serves civil and governmental, scheduled and unscheduled domestic and international flights. The current runways support the landing of all common types of aircraft currently used. The airport has enjoyed rapidly growing passenger traffic in recent years; it served 279,028Â passengers in 2000, 1,937,642 in 2006 and 2,024,142 in 2007. Smaller airports served by passenger airlines include those in KoÅ¡ice and Poprad.
The Port of Bratislava is one of the two international river ports in Slovakia. The port connects Bratislava to international boat traffic, especially the interconnection from the North Sea to the Black Sea via the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal. Additionally, tourist lines operate from Bratislava's passenger port, including routes to DevÃn, Vienna and elsewhere.
Slovakia features natural landscapes, mountains, caves, medieval castles and towns, folk architecture, spas and ski resorts. More than 1.6Â million people visited Slovakia in 2006, and the most attractive destinations are the capital of Bratislava and the High Tatras. Most visitors come from the Czech Republic (about 26%), Poland (15%) and Germany (11%).
Typical souvenirs from Slovakia are dolls dressed in folk costumes, ceramic objects, crystal glass, carved wooden figures, ÄrpÃ¡ks (wooden pitchers), fujaras (a folk instrument on the UNESCO list) and valaÅ¡kas (a decorated folk hatchet) and above all products made from corn husks and wire, notably human figures.
Souvenirs can be bought in the shops run by the state organization ÃÄ½UV (Ãstredie Ä¾udovej umeleckej vÃ½roby â" Center of Folk Art Production). Dielo shop chain sells works of Slovak artists and craftsmen. These shops are mostly found in towns and cities.
Prices of imported products are generally the same as in the neighboring countries, whereas prices of local products and services, especially food, are usually lower.
The Slovak Academy of Sciences has been the most important scientific and research institution in the country since 1953. Slovaks have made notable scientific and technical contributions during the history. The list of important scientists and their inventions include:
- Jozef MurgaÅ¡ (1864â"1929), contributed to development of wireless telegraphy
- JÃ¡n BahÃ½Ä¾ (1856 â" 1916), constructed the first motor-driven helicopter (four years before BrÃ©guet and Cornu)
- Å tefan BaniÄ (1870â"1941), constructed the first actively used parachute
- Aurel Stodola (1859â"1942), created a bionic arm in 1916 and pioneered steam and gas turbines
- John Dopyera (1893 â" 1988), constructed a resonator guitar, an important contribution to the development of acoustic string instrument
- Eugen ÄerÅan (1934), American astronaut of Slovak origin was the last man to visit the Moon
- Ivan Bella (1964), first Slovak in space, having participated in a 9-day joint Russian-French-Slovak mission on the space station Mir in 1999.
- Daniel Gajdusek (1923 â" 2008), (of Slovak ancestry) won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1976 for work on kuru
- David Politzer (1949), winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics is also of Slovak ancestry.
According to the 2011 census, the majority of the inhabitants of Slovakia are Slovaks (80.7%). Hungarians are the largest ethnic minority (8.5%). Other ethnic groups include Roma (2%), Czechs (0.6%), Rusyns (0.6%) and others or unspecified (7.6%). Unofficial estimates on the number of Roma population are much higher, around 9%.
In 2007 Slovakia was estimated to have a total fertility rate of 1.33 (i.e.,Â the average woman will have 1.33Â children in her lifetime), which is significantly below the replacement level and is one of the lowest rates among EU countries.
The largest waves of Slovak emigration occurred in the 19th and early 20th centuries. In the 1990 U.S.Â census, 1.8Â million people self-identified as having Slovak ancestry.
The official language is Slovak, a member of the Slavic language family. Hungarian is widely spoken in the southern regions, and Rusyn is used in some parts of the Northeast. Minority languages hold co-official status in the municipalities in which the size of the minority population meets the legal threshold of 20%.
Slovakia is ranked among the top EU countries regarding the knowledge of foreign languages. In 2007, 68% of the population aged from 25 to 64 years claimed to speak two or more foreign languages, finishing 2nd highest in the European Union. The best known foreign language in Slovakia is Czech. Eurostat report also shows that 98.3% of Slovak students in the upper secondary education take on two foreign languages, ranking highly over the average 60.1% in the European Union.
The deaf community uses the Slovak Sign Language. Even though spoken Czech and Slovak are similar, the Slovak Sign language is not particularly close to Czech Sign Language.
The Slovak constitution guarantees freedom of religion. In 2011, 62.0% of Slovaks identified themselves as Roman Catholics, 8.9% as Protestants, 3.8% as Greek Catholics, 0.9% as Orthodox, 13.4% identified themselves as atheists and 10.6% did not answer the question about their belief. In 2004, about one third of the then church members regularly attended church services. The preâ"World WarÂ II population of the country included an estimated 90,000 Jews (1.6% of the population). After the genocidal policies of the Nazi era, only about 2,300 Jews remain today (0.04% of the population).
Folk tradition has rooted strongly in Slovakia and is reflected in literature, music, dance and architecture. The prime example is a Slovak national anthem, "Nad Tatrou sa blÃ½ska", which is based on a melody from "Kopala studienku" folk song.
Manifestation of Slovak folklore culture is the "VÃ½chodnÃ¡" Folklore Festival. It is the oldest and largest nationwide festival with international participation, which takes place in VÃ½chodnÃ¡ annually. Slovakia is usually represented by many groups but mainly by SÄ½UK (SlovenskÃ½ Ä¾udovÃ½ umeleckÃ½ kolektÃv - Slovak folk art collective). SÄ½UK is the largest Slovak folk art group, trying to preserve the folklore tradition.
An example of wooden folk architecture in Slovakia can be seen in the well preserved village of VlkolÃnec which has been the UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1993. Eastern part of Slovakia, particularly the region of SpiÅ¡, preserves the world's most remarkable folk wooden churches. Most of them are protected by Slovak law as cultural heritage, but some of them are on the UNESCO list too, in BodruÅ¾al, Hervartov, LadomirovÃ¡ and RuskÃ¡ BystrÃ¡.
The best known Slovak hero, found in many folk mythologies, is Juraj JÃ¡noÅ¡Ãk (1688â"1713) (the Slovak equivalent of Robin Hood). The legend says he was taking from the rich and giving to the poor. JÃ¡noÅ¡Ãk's life was depicted in a list of literature works and many movies throughout the 20th century. One of the most popular is a film JÃ¡noÅ¡Ãk directed by Martin FriÄ in 1935.
Visual art in Slovakia is represented through painting, drawing, printmaking, illustration, arts and crafts, sculpture, photography or conceptual art. The supreme and central gallery institution displaying Slovak art nowadays is the Slovak National Gallery, established in 1949.
Well known sculptor of the 15th century Late Gothic era in Slovakia is the Master Paul of LevoÄa. Although his work can be found in many places (BanskÃ¡ Bystrica, SpiÅ¡skÃ¡ Sobota or LomniÄka), his most famous is a wooden altar in the Church of St. Jacob in LevoÄa. With its height of 18.62 metres (61Â ft), it is the tallest Gothic altar in the world. Well known painters of that time are the Master from OkoliÄnÃ©, author of the altar in St. Elisabeth Cathedral in KoÅ¡ice, and Master M.S. of the 16th century, whose statue of Madonna can be seen in the Saint Catherine Church in BanskÃ¡ Å tiavnica. The statues of Saint Catherine and Saint Barbara are in the art gallery of the Slovak Mining Museum in BanskÃ¡ Å tiavnica.
The 19th century in Slovakia was a turbulent period of time when Slovaks began experiencing their national revival in the kingdom of Austria-Hungary. Romanticism of Jozef B. Klemens (1817â"1883) and Peter Michal BohÃºÅ (1822â"1879) was represented in the portrait paintings of Slovak national protagonists of that time (Å tefan Moyses, Andrej SlÃ¡dkoviÄ, Karol KuzmÃ¡ny or Ä½udovÃt Å tÃºr), depicting the revolutionary atmosphere of the 1840s in the background. Other important painters of the 19th century were mainly portraitists Vojtech Angyal, Dominik SkuteckÃ½ (1849â"1921), J. Å tetka, E. Ballo, Jozef Hanula (1863 â" 1944), landscapist Karol Miloslav LehotskÃ½ (1846 â" 1915) and impressionists MaximiliÃ¡n Schurmann (1863 â" 1944) and P. Kern.
Sculpture in the 19th century was dominated by a sacral sculptor Vavrinec DunajskÃ½ (1784 â" 1833) and his son Ladislav DunajskÃ½, author of JÃ¡n HollÃ½ memorial in DobrÃ¡ Voda. Another important sculptors were JÃ¡n Koniarek (1878 â" 1952), Alojz StrÃ³bl (1856 â" 1926), JÃ¡n Fadrusz (1858 â" 1903) and Alojz Rigele (1879â"1940).
Painters MikulÃ¡Å¡ Galanda (1895â"1938), Martin Benka (1888â"1971), Janko Alexy (1894â"1970), MiloÅ¡ Alexander BazovskÃ½ (1899â"1968), GustÃ¡v MallÃ½ (1879â"1952) and Jan HÃ¡la (1890â"1959) are considered to be the ones who laid foundations of the Slovak modern art in the first half of the 20th century. The inspiration of their work stems mainly from the lives of everyday people in Slovak rurals which they admired and idealized. The painters influenced by Art Nouveau, symbolism and expressionism are Zolo Palugyay (1898 â" 1935), Anton Jasusch (1882â"1965), Edmund Gwerk (1895â"1956) or JÃºlius Jakoby (1903 â" 1985). Important also is BlaÅ¾ej BalÃ¡Å¾ (1958).
Some of the most distinguished Slovak artists, whose work was closely linked to modern European art streams are Koloman Sokol (1902 â" 2003), who became a professor of graphic techniques at the Escuela de las Artes del Libro and at the University of Mexico City from 1937 to 1941, Ä½udovÃt Fulla (1902 â" 1980) who received many international prices for his work and Imro Weiner-KrÃ¡Ä¾ (1901 â" 1978). The generation 1909 represent CypriÃ¡n MajernÃk (1909 â" 1945), JÃ¡n Å½elibskÃ½, JÃ¡n Mudroch (1909 â" 1968), Ladislav ÄemickÃ½ (1909 â" 1968) and Ester M. Å imerovÃ¡ (1909).
Slovak graphic art experienced its peak during the 20th century. The most notable print-makers are Koloman Sokol (1902 â" 2003), Vincent HloÅ¾nÃk (1919 â" 1997), AlbÃn BrunovskÃ½ (1935 â" 1997), DuÅ¡an KÃ¡llay (1948), VladimÃr GaÅ¾oviÄ (1939), Karol OndreiÄka (1898 â" 1961) or the young generation of artists KatarÃna VavrovÃ¡, Jozef JankoviÄ and Matej KrÃ©n.
Andy Warhol (1928â"1987), a leading figure in the 20th century visual art movement known as pop art, was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania as Andrej Varchola to Slovak parents Ondrej Varchola (1889â"1942) and JÃºlia (nÃ©e ZavackÃ¡, 1892â"1972). A museum dedicated to him is in Medzilaborce, where his parents lived.
Notable Slovak photographers in the 20th century are Martin MartinÄek (1913â"2004) and Karol KÃ¡llay (1926â"2012). Both MartinÄek and KÃ¡llay received the EFIAP (Excellence de la FÃ©dÃ©ration Internationale de l' Art Photographique) price in 1970.
Sculpture in the 20th century represent JÃ¡n Koniarek (1878 â" 1952), JÃºlius BÃ¡rtfay (1888 â" 1979), Tibor BÃ¡rtfay (1922) JÃ¡n MathÃ© (1922), Jozef Kostka (1912 â" 1996), Ladislav Snopek (1919 â" 2010), Rudolf Uher or Rudolf HornÃ¡k.
Notable Slovak artists of the 21st century include Cyril BlaÅ¾o (1970), Petra Å tefankovÃ¡, Martin Vargic and Viliam Loviska (1964)
For a list of notable Slovak writers and poets, see List of Slovak authors.
Christian topics include: poem Proglas as a foreword to the four Gospels, partial translations of the Bible into Old Church Slavonic, Zakon sudnyj ljudem.
Medieval literature, in the period from the 11th to the 15th centuries, was written in Latin, Czech and Slovakized Czech. Lyric (prayers, songs and formulas) was still controlled by the Church, while epic was concentrated on legends. Authors from this period include Johannes de Thurocz, author of the Chronica Hungarorum and Maurus, both of them Hungarians. The worldly literature also emerged and chronicles were written in this period.
There were two leading persons who codified the Slovak language. The first was Anton BernolÃ¡k whose concept was based on the western Slovak dialect in 1787. It was the codification of the first ever literary language of Slovaks. The second was Ä½udovÃt Å tÃºr, whose formation of the Slovak language took principles from the central Slovak dialect in 1843.
Slovakia is also known for its polyhistors, of whom include Pavol Jozef Å afÃ¡rik, Matej Bel, JÃ¡n KollÃ¡r, and its political revolutionaries and reformists, such Milan Rastislav Å tefÃ¡nik and Alexander DubÄek.
Famous globetrotter and explorer, count MÃ³ric Benyovszky had Slovak ancestors.
The most important Slovak composers have been Eugen SuchoÅ, MikulÃ¡Å¡ Schneider-TrnavskÃ½, JÃ¡n Cikker, JÃ¡n Levoslav Bella, Alexander Moyzes and Dezider KardoÅ¡, in the 21st century VladimÃr GodÃ¡r and Peter MachajdÃk.
Popular music began to replace folk music beginning in the 1950s, when Slovakia was still part of Czechoslovakia; American jazz, R&B, and rock and roll were popular, alongside waltzes, polkas, and czardas, among other folk forms. By the end of the 1950s, radios were common household items, though only state stations were legal. Slovak popular music began as a mix of bossa nova, cool jazz, and rock, with propagandistic lyrics. Dissenters listened to ORF (Austrian Radio), Radio Luxembourg, or SlobodnÃ¡ EurÃ³pa (Radio Free Europe), which played more rock.
Due to Czechoslovak isolation, the domestic market was active and many original bands evolved. Slovakia had a very strong pop culture during the 1970s and 1980s. This movement brought many original bands with their own unique interpretations of modern music. The quality of socialist music was very high. Stars such as Karel Gott, Olympic, PraÅ¾skÃ½ vÃ½bÄr (from the Czech Republic) or ElÃ¡n, Modus, Tublatanka, Team (from Slovakia) and many others were highly acclaimed and many recorded their LPs in foreign languages.
After the Velvet Revolution and the declaration of the Slovak state, domestic music dramatically diversified as free enterprise encouraged the formation of new bands and the development of new genres of music. Soon, however, major labels brought pop music to Slovakia and drove many of the small companies out of business. During the 1990s, American grunge and alternative rock, and Britpop have a wide following, as well as a newfound enthusiasm for musicals.
Peter Lipa (born 1943) is a well-known Slovak singer, composer and promoter of modern jazz. He is one of the main organizers of the "Bratislava Jazz Days" festival, which takes place in the capital city at the end of October each year since 1975. It is the biggest jazz venue in Slovakia.
Martin Valihora (1976), having been awarded a scholarship on the Berklee College of Music in Boston, he established himself as a part of the New York's jazz scene. He has been playing with the world's famous Japanese jazz pianist Hiromi Uehara.
Other notable Slovak jazz players are Laco DÃ©czi (1938) - composer, jazz trumpeter, MariÃ¡n Varga (1947) - composer, organ player
Traditional Slovak cuisine is based mainly on pork meat, poultry (chicken is the most widely eaten, followed by duck, goose, and turkey), flour, potatoes, cabbage, and milk products. It is relatively closely related to Hungarian, Czech and Austrian cuisine. On the east it is also influenced by Ukrainian and Polish cuisine. In comparison with other European countries, "game meat" is more accessible in Slovakia due to vast resources of forest and because hunting is relatively popular. Boar, rabbit, and venison, are generally available throughout the year. Lamb and goat are eaten but are not widely popular.
The traditional Slovak meals are bryndzovÃ© haluÅ¡ky, bryndzovÃ© pirohy and other meals with potato dough and bryndza. Bryndza is a salty cheese made of a sheep milk, characterized by a strong taste and aroma. BryndzovÃ© haluÅ¡ky must be on the menu of every traditional Slovak restaurant.
A typical soup is a sauerkraut soup ("kapustnica"). A blood sausage called "jaternica", made from any and all parts of a butchered pig is also a specific slovak meal.
Wine is enjoyed throughout Slovakia. Slovak wine comes predominantly from the southern areas along the Danube and its tributaries; the northern half of the country is too cold and mountainous to grow grapevines. Traditionally, white wine was more popular than red or rosÃ© (except in some regions), and sweet wine more popular than dry, but in recent years tastes seem to be changing. Beer (mainly of the pilsener style, though dark lagers are also consumed) is also popular.
Sport activities are practiced widely in Slovakia, many of them on a professional level. Among the most popular are ice hockey, football, tennis, handball, basketball, volleyball, whitewater slalom or athletics.
One of the most popular collective sports in Slovakia is ice hockey. Slovakia became the member of IIHF on 2 February 1993 and ever since has won 4 medals in Ice Hockey World Championships, consisting of 1 gold, 2 silver and 1 bronze medal. The most recent success is a silver medal from 2012 IIHF World Championship in Helsinki. Slovak national hockey team made five appearances in the Olympic games too, ended up 4th in the last 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver. The country has 8280 registered players and is ranked 8th in the IIHF World Ranking at present. Prior to 2012, Slovak team HC Slovan Bratislava joined the Continental Hockey League, considered the strongest hockey league in Europe, and the second-best in the world.
Slovakia organized the 2011 IIHF World Championship in ice hockey in which the team of Finland won the gold medal. The venue took place in Bratislava and KoÅ¡ice.
The most notable Slovak hockey players who played or are still playing in the National Hockey League are Stan Mikita, Peter Å Å¥astnÃ½, Marian Å Å¥astnÃ½, Anton Å Å¥astnÃ½, Peter Bondra, Å½igmund PÃ¡lffy, MariÃ¡n GÃ¡borÃk, MariÃ¡n Hossa, Pavol Demitra, Zdeno ChÃ¡ra, Miroslav Å atan, Ä½ubomÃr ViÅ¡ÅovskÃ½, TomÃ¡Å¡ KopeckÃ½, Andrej Sekera or Jaroslav HalÃ¡k.
Whitewater slalom is the most successful Olympic sport in modern-day Slovakia. Apart from winning many World and European Championships, Slovak canoeists collected medals in each Summer Olympic Games since their first appearance in Atlanta 1996.
- See also List of Slovaks
Â§Notes and references
- Julius Bartl et al., Slovak History: Chronology & Lexicon. Wauconda, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, 2002.
- Olga Drobna, Eduard Drobny, and Magdalena Gocnikova, Slovakia: The Heart of Europe. Wauconda, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, 1996.
- Pavel Dvorak, The Early History of Slovakia in Images. Budmerice, Slovakia: Vydavatel'stvo Rak Budmerice, 2006.
- Sharon Fisher, Political Change in Post-Communist Slovakia and Croatia: From Nationalist to Europeanist. New YorkÂ : Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.
- Karen Henderson, Slovakia: The Escape from Invisibility. London: Routledge, 2002.
- Rob Humphrey, The Rough Guide to the Czech and Slovak Republics. New York: Rough Guides, 2006.
- Michael Jacobs, Blue Guide: Czech and Slovak Republics. London: A.&C. Black, 1999.
- Owen V. Johnson, Slovakia 1918â"1938: Education and the Making of a Nation. Boulder, CO: East European Monographs, 1985.
- Lil Junas, My Slovakia: An American's View. Martin, Slovakia: VydavatelÅtvo Matice slovenskej, 2001.
- Stanislav Kirschbaum, A History of Slovakia: The Struggle for Survival. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995.
- Eugen Lazistan, Fedor MikoviÄ, Ivan KuÄma, and Anna JureÄkovÃ¡, Slovakia: A Photographic Odyssey. Wauconda, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, 2001.
- Elena MannovÃ¡, A Concise History of Slovakia. Bratislava: HistorickÃ½ Ãºstav SAV, 2000.
- Anton Spiesz and Dusan Caplovic, Illustrated Slovak History: A Struggle for Sovereignty in Central Europe. Wauconda, ILÂ : Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, 2001.
- Slovakia entry at The World Factbook
- Slovakia from UCB Libraries GovPubs
- Slovakia at DMOZ
- Slovakia profile from the BBC News
- Wikimedia Atlas of Slovakia
- Slovakia travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Slovakia.travel Official Slovak National Tourism Portal
- Geographic data related to Slovakia at OpenStreetMap
- Key Development Forecasts for the Slovak Republic from International Futures
- Former names of all Slovakia's towns and villages prior IWW (prior 1918)
- Government Office of the Slovak Republic
- President of the Slovak Republic
- Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs of the Slovak Republic
- Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic
- Chief of State and Cabinet Members