The Eurocopter AS350 Ãcureuil (Squirrel) is a single-engine light helicopter originally designed and manufactured in France by AÃ©rospatiale (now Airbus Helicopters). In North America, the AS350 is marketed as the AStar. The AS355 Ecureuil 2 is a twin-engine variant, marketed in North America as the TwinStar. The Eurocopter EC130 is a derivative of the AS350 airframe and is considered to be part of the Ãcureuil single-engine family.
Design and development
In the early 1970s, AÃ©rospatiale began development to replace the aging Alouette II design. The result was the AS350 design. The first prototype, powered by a Lycoming LTS101 turboshaft made its maiden flight on 27 June 1974, with the second prototype, powered by a Turbomeca Arriel 1A following on 14 February 1975. The Arriel powered version, the AS350B, intended for sale throughout the world except for North America, was certified in France on 27 October 1977, while the Lycoming powered AS350C (or AStar) was certified by the US Federal Aviation Administration on 21 December 1977. Customer deliveries began in March 1978 for the AS350B and April 1978 for the AS350C.
On 14 May 2005, an AS350 B3 piloted by Eurocopter test pilot Didier Delsalle touched down on the top of Mount Everest, at 8,848Â m (29,030Â ft). This record has been confirmed by the FÃ©dÃ©ration AÃ©ronautique Internationale. On 29 April 2010, a stripped-down AS350 B3 rescued three Spanish alpinists, one at a time, from the slopes of Annapurna I, Nepal at an altitude of 6,900Â m (22,640Â ft); this set a new record for the highest such rescue. The record was increased to 7,800Â m (25,590Â ft) when Sudarshan Gautam was rescued between Camps III & IV in Everest's Yellow Band early in the morning on Monday, 20 May 2013, Nepal time (NPT).
The HelicÃ³pteros do Brasil (Helibras) subsidiary of Eurocopter signed a contract for a major upgrade program on the Brazilian Armyâs fleet of 36 AS350 Ecureuils.
- AS350 Firefighter
- Fire fighting version.
- Powered by one Turbomeca Arriel 1B engine.
- AS350 B1
- Improved version of the original AS350B, which is powered by one Arriel 1D engine, type also fitted with AS355 main rotor blades, AS355 tail rotor with tabs and a tail rotor servo.
- AS350 B2
- Higher gross weight version powered by one Arriel 1D1 engine over the B1 version with aerodynamic strake fitted to tail boom along the starboard side and angled engine exhaust duct for better yaw control.
- AS350 B3
- High-performance version, is powered by an Arriel 2B engine equipped with a single channel (DECU) Digital Engine Control Unit with a mechanical backup system. This helicopter is the first ever to land on the summit of Mount Everest. AS350 B3/2B1 variant introduces enhanced engine with dual channel (FADEC) Full Authority Digital Engine Control, dual hydraulics and a 2,370 kg (5,225 lb) Maximum Take Off Weight. AS350 B3e (introduced late 2011) equipped with the Arriel 2D engine.
- AS350 BA
- Powered by a Arriel 1B engine and fitted with wider chord AS355 main rotor blades and tail rotor servo.
- AS350 BB
- AS350 B2 variant selected to meet rotary-wing training needs of UK MoD, through its Defence Helicopter Flying School in 1996. Powered by a derated Arriel 1D1 engine to improve the helicopters' life cycle.
- Eurocopter Squirrel HT.1
- Designation of AS350BB in operation with British Military, through the Defence Helicopter Flying School as a training helicopter.
- Eurocopter Squirrel HT.2
- Designation of AS350BB in operation with British Army Air Corps as a training helicopter, based at Middle Wallop.
- AS350 C
- Initial variant of Lycoming LTS-101-600A2 powered version developed for the North American market as the AStar. Quickly superseded by AS350D.
- AS350 D
- Powered by one Lycoming LTS-101 engine for the North American market as the AStar. At one stage marketed as AStar 'Mark III.'
- AS350 L1
- Military derivative of AS350 B1, powered by a 510kW (684shp) Turbomeca Arriel 1D turboshaft engine. Superseded by AS350 L2.
- AS350 L2
- Military derivative of AS350 B2, powered by a 546kW (732shp) Turbomeca Arriel 1D1 turboshaft engine. Designation superseded by AS550 C2.
- HB350 B Esquilo
- Unarmed military version for the Brazilian Air Force. Brazilian designations CH-50 and TH-50. Built under licence by Helibras in Brazil.
- HB350 B1 Esquilo
- Unarmed military version for the Brazilian Navy. Brazilian designation UH-12. Built under licence by Helibras in Brazil.
- HB350 L1
- Armed military version for the Brazilian Army. Brazilian designation HA-1. Built under licence by Helibras in Brazil.
- Soloy SD1, Super D
- AS350 BA powered by an LTS101-600A-3A engine.
- Soloy AllStar
- AS350 BA powered by a Rolls Royce 250-C30 engine.
- Soloy SD2
- AS350 B2 powered by an LTS101-700D-2 engine.
- Heli-Lynx 350FX1
- AS350 BA powered by an LTS101-600A-3A engine.
- Heli-Lynx 350FX2
- AS350 BA or AS350 B2 powered by an LTS101-700D-2 engine.
- Otech AS350BA+
- AS350 BA powered by an LTS101-600A-3A engine.
The AS350 is in service around the world operated by private individuals, airline and charter operators, emergency medical teams, governments and law enforcement agencies.
Military and government operators
- Â Argentina
- Argentine National Gendarmerie
- Buenos Aires Province Police
- Â Australia
- Royal Australian Navy
- Â Bolivia
- Bolivian Air Force
- Â Botswana
- Botswana Defence Force Air Wing
- Â Brazil
- Brazilian Navy
- Â Cambodia
- Royal Cambodian Air Force
- Â Canada
- Royal Canadian Mounted Police
- Â Central African Republic
- Central African Republic Air Force
- Â Chile
- Chilean Army
- Â France
- National Gendarmerie
- Â Gabon
- Gabonese Air Force
- Â Guinea
- Guinea Air Force
- Â Iceland
- Icelandic Coast Guard
- Â Jordan
- Royal Jordanian Air Force
- Â Malawi
- Malawi Army Air Wing
- Â Mali
- Mali Air Force
- Â Â Â Nepal
- Nepalese Army Air Service
- Â Paraguay
- Paraguayan Air Force
- Paraguayan Naval Aviation
- Â Russia
- Ministry of Defence
- Â South Africa
- South African Police Service
- Â United Kingdom
- Defence Helicopter Flying School
- Â United States
- Customs and Border Protection
- Los Angeles Police Department
- Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department
- Baltimore County Police Department
- Philadelphia Police Department
Notable achievements and accidents
- On 14 May 2005, a Ecureuil AS350B3 piloted by Didier Delsalle landed at about 8,848 meters on the top of the Mount Everest. As required by the FÃ©dÃ©ration AÃ©ronautique Internationale, the aircraft remained on the summit longer than 2 minutes before returning to Lukla. He actually landed on the summit two times. He only needed to land for two minutes to officially set the record, but he stayed for about four minutes twice. The flight set rotorcraft world records, for highest of both landing and take-off. Delsalle also rescued two Japanese climbers at 4,877 meters (16,000 feet), and one climber noted that the flight meant a better chance of rescue, though the pilot mentioned "The thought of rescuing climbers was one of the things that motivated me to do this project. But the forces I encountered were so powerful that to guarantee a safe flight you'd have to design a more powerful copter".
- On 14 December 2004 an AS350-B3 medical transport helicopter operated by Air Evac of Arizona crashed on final approach while attempting to land on an emergency scene in Apache Junction, Arizona. Flight Medic Doreen Renee Johnson, 26, was killed on impact. The pilot Susanna Corcoles and Flight Nurse Kelly Foster-Stopka sustained serious but non life-threatening injuries.
- On 27 July 2007, two AS350s collided in mid-air while reporting a police pursuit. The two helicopters were part of KNXV-TV and KTVK television stations in Phoenix, Arizona. Four crew members were killed in this accident.
- On 15 September 2007, former World Rally Championship driver Colin McRae and three passengers were killed when his AS350 B2 Squirrel, which he was piloting, crashed near Lanark, Scotland.
- On 8 August 2009, a Piper PA-32R collided with an AS350 over the Hudson River, with both aircraft crashing into the Hudson River. There were no survivors from the crash.
- On 29 April 2011, a Pawan Hans AS350 B-3 helicopter carrying Dorjee Khandu, the Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh, and four other people, went missing. It was traced four days later near Lobthang. All five people were found dead
- On 26 August 2011, an AS350 B2 emergency helicopter crashed near Mosby, Missouri, due to lack of fuel, killing all 4 people on board. Its rotor speed was not recovered within the mandatory 2 seconds.
- On 10 June 2012, an AS350 B3e belonging to the Kenya Police Air Wing crashed in Kibiku area in Ngong Forest, west of Nairobi, Kenya, killing at least six people, including Kenya's Interior Security Minister George Saitoti and his deputy Orwa Ojode.
- On 31 March 2013, an AS350 B3 Astar belonging to the Alaska State Troopers crashed near Talkeetna, Alaska, killing all three aboard. The helicopter, piloted by Mel Nading, 55, of Anchorage, was on a rescue mission to recover injured snowmobiler Carl Ober, 56, of Talkeetna. The crash also claimed the life of Alaska State Trooper Tage Toll, a former Kansas state highway patrolman.
- On 22 October 2013, an AS350 B3 medical transport helicopter operated by Memphis, Tennessee, based Hospital Wing crashed near Somerville, Tennessee, while en route to Bolivar, Tennessee. Three personnel onboard (one Hospital Wing pilot and the medial team of one flight nurse and one respiratory therapist from Le Bonheur Children's Hospital) were killed in the accident.
- On 18 March 2014, an AS350 B2 owned by Helicopters Inc. and being used as a temporary replacement by KOMO-TV and KING-TV in Seattle, Washington, crashed across the street from the Fisher Plaza while attempting to take off from the rooftop of the studios of KOMO. The two people on board, pilot Gary Pfitzner and photographer Bill Strothman, were killed. The sole occupant of a passenger car onto which the helicopter fell was severely burned and taken to Harborview Medical Center. Two additional vehicles caught fire from the burning fuel, but the drivers escaped injury. According to eyewitnesses and security camera recordings, the helicopter yawed 360 degrees and pitched down while attempting to lift off the helipad.
- On 9 April 2014, a new AS350 B3E in medical service owned by Petroleum Helicopters Inc. crashed departing the rooftop helipad at University of New Mexico Hospital in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The pilot and two medical crew members survived. Eyewitnesses reported the aircraft rose 25 to 30 feet from the helipad and pitched to the right, coming to rest with the tail over the edge of the roof, with the cabin, largely intact, on its right side.
- On 7 June 2014, a HelibrÃ¡s HB-350BA crashed after takeoff, in AruanÃ£, GoiÃ¡s state, Brazil. All on board died, including retired soccer player FernandÃ£o.
- On 9 March 2015, two AS350B3 collided mid air in La Rioja Province, Argentina, killing all 10 people on board both aircraft. The passengers, including a number of French athletes, were participants in the filming of French reality television program Dropped.
Specifications (AS350 B3)
Data from Brassey's World Aircraft & Systems Directory 1999/2000
- Crew: 1
- Capacity: 5
- Length: 10.93 m (35 ft 10Â½ in)
- Rotor diameter: 10.7 m (35 ft 1 in)
- Height: 3.14 m (10 ft 3Â½ in)
- Disc area: 89.75 mÂ² (966.1 sq ft)
- Empty weight: 1,174 kg (2,588 lb)
- Max. takeoff weight: 2,250 kg (4,960 lb)
- Powerplant: 1 Ã Turbomeca Arriel 2B turboshaft, 632 kW (847 shp)
- Never exceed speed: 287 km/h (155 knots, 178 mph)
- Cruise speed: 245 km/h (132 knots, 152 mph)
- Range: 662 km (357 nmi, 411 mi)
- Endurance: 4.1 hrs
- Service ceiling: 4,600 m (15,100 ft)
- Rate of climb: 8.5 m/s (1,675 ft/min)
Vehicle and Engine Monitoring Display (VEMD) with First Limit Indicator (FLI) fitted as standard.
â 4, 5, & 6 passengers options available. The 6 passenger configuration is a relatively uncommon high-density seating option that replaces one front seat with a two-person bench and the pilot relocated to the left side of the cockpit.
- Related development
- Eurocopter AS355
- Eurocopter AS550 Fennec
- Eurocopter EC130
- Changhe Z-11
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- MBB Bo 105
- MD Helicopters MD 500
- Bell 407
- PZL SW-4
- Marenco SKYe SH09
- Related lists
- List of active United Kingdom military aircraft
- Hoyle, Craig. "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International. Vol 180 No 5321, 13â"19 December 2011. pp.Â 26â"52.
- Jackson, Paul. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 2003â"2004. Coulsdon, Surry, UK: Jane's Information Group, 2003. ISBN 0-7106-2537-5.
- Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1982â"83. London: Jane's Yearbooks, 1982. ISBN 0-7106-0748-2.
- Taylor, Michael J.Â H. Brassey's World Aircraft & Systems Directory 1999/2000. London:Brassey's, 1999. ISBN 1-85753-245-7.
- Eurocopter's AS350 B2 page
- Eurocopter's AS350 B3 page