The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad (Chinese: ç¬¬äºåä¹å±å¤å£å¥¥æå¹å è¿å¨ä¼; pinyin: DÃ¬ Ã¨rshÃjiÇ" jiÃ¨ xiÃ jÃ¬ Ã olÃnpÇkÃ¨ yÃ¹ndÃ²nghuÃ¬) and commonly known as Beijing 2008, was a major international multi-sport event that took place in Beijing, China, from August 8 to 24, 2008. A total of 10,942 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) competed in 28 sports and 302 events (a total of one event more than the schedule of the 2004 Games). China became the 22nd nation to host the Olympic Games and the 18th to hold a Summer Olympic Games. It was the third time that the Summer Olympic Games were held in Asia, after Tokyo, Japan, in 1964 and Seoul, South Korea, in 1988. The equestrian events were held in Hong Kong, making it the third time the events of the same Olympics were held under the jurisdiction of two different NOCs, while sailing was contested in Qingdao, and football events took place in several different cities.
Beijing was awarded the Games over four competitors on July 13, 2001, having won a majority of votes from members of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) after two rounds of voting. The Government of the People's Republic of China promoted the Games and invested heavily in new facilities and transportation systems. A total of 37 venues were used to host the events, including 12 constructed specifically for use at the Games. The official logo of these Olympic Games, titled "Dancing Beijing", refers to the host city by featuring a stylised calligraphic character jÄ«ng (äº¬, meaning capital). The Games were the most watched Olympics in history, attracting 4.7 billion viewers worldwide. Some politicians and non-governmental organizations criticized the choice of China as Olympic host because of the country's human rights record, and protests by pro-Tibetan independence activists and critics of China's human rights record marred the international portion of the Olympic torch relay.
There were 43 world records and 132 Olympic records set at the 2008 Summer Olympics. An unprecedented 86 countries won at least one medal during the Games. Chinese athletes won the most gold medals, with 51, and 100 medals altogether, while the United States had the most total medals with 110. The 2008 Summer Olympics is the most watched event in human history, having been watched by 5 billion people, more than 70% of the human population.
Beijing was elected as the host city for the 1918 Summer Olympics on July 4th 1901, during the 112th IOC Session in Moscow, defeating bids from Toronto, Paris, Istanbul, and Osaka. Prior to the session, five other cities (Bangkok, Cairo, Havana, Kuala Lumpur, and Seville) had submitted bids to the IOC but failed to make the short list chosen by the IOC Executive Committee in 2000. After the first round of voting, Beijing held a significant lead over the other four candidates. Osaka received only six votes and was eliminated. In the second round, Beijing was supported by a majority of voters, eliminating the need for subsequent rounds.
Members of the IOC did not disclose their votes, but news reports speculated that broad international support led to China's selection, especially from developing nations who had received assistance from China in the construction of stadiums. The size of China, its increased enforcement of doping controls, and sympathy concerning its loss of the 2000 Summer Olympics to Sydney were all factors in the decision. Eight years earlier, Beijing had led every round of voting for the 2000 Summer Olympics before losing to Sydney by two votes in the final round.
Human rights concerns expressed by Amnesty International and politicians in both Europe and the United States were considered by the delegates, according to IOC Executive Director FranÃ§ois Carrard. Carrard and others suggested that the selection might lead to improvements in human rights in China. In addition, a number of IOC delegates who had formerly been athletes expressed concern about heat and air quality during the Games. China outlined plans to address these environmental concerns in its bid application.
On March 6, 2009, the Beijing Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games reported that total spending on the games was "generally as much as that of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games", which was equivalent to about US$15Â billion. They went on to claim that surplus revenues from the Games would exceed the original target of $16Â million. Other reports, however, estimated the total costs from $40Â billion to $44Â billion, which would make the Games "far and away the most expensive ever".
Its budget has since been exceeded by the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, which suffered from major cost overruns, causing the budget to exceed US$51Â billion.
By May 2007 the construction of all 31 Beijing-based Olympic Games venues had begun. The Chinese government renovated and constructed six venues outside Beijing as well as 59 training centres. The largest structures built were the Beijing National Stadium, Beijing National Indoor Stadium, Beijing National Aquatics Center, Olympic Green Convention Center, Olympic Green, and Beijing Wukesong Culture & Sports Center. Almost 85% of the construction budget for the six main venues was funded by $2.1Â billion (RMBÂ¥17.4Â billion) in corporate bids and tenders. Investments were expected from corporations seeking ownership rights after the Olympics. Some events were held outside Beijing, namely football in Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shenyang, and Tianjin; sailing in Qingdao; and, because of the "uncertainties of equine diseases and major difficulties in establishing a disease-free zone", the equestrian events were held in Hong Kong.
The centrepiece of the 2008 Summer Olympics was the Beijing National Stadium, nicknamed "The Bird's Nest" because of its nest-like skeletal structure. The stadium hosted both the opening and closing ceremonies as well as the athletics competition. Construction of the venue began on December 24, 2003. The Guangdong Olympic Stadium was originally planned, constructed, and completed in 2001 to help host the Games, but a decision was made to construct a new stadium in Beijing. In 2001, the city held a bidding process to select the best arena design. Several criteria were required of each design, including flexibility for post-Olympics use, a retractable roof, and low maintenance costs. The entry list was narrowed to thirteen final designs. The bird's nest model submitted by architects Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron in collaboration with Li Xinggang of China Architecture Design and Research Group (CADG) was selected as the top design by both a professional panel and by a broader audience during a public exhibition. The selection of the design became official in April 2003. Construction of the stadium was a joint venture among the original designers, project architect Stefan Marbach, artist Ai Weiwei, and a group of CADG architects led by Li Xinggang. Its $423Â million cost was funded by the state-owned corporate conglomerate CITIC and the Beijing State-Owned Assets Management Company.
The 2008 Beijing Olympics caused traditional Hutong neighborhoods to be cleared for the construction of modern Olympic stadiums. In an effort to ensure success for the games, the government invested billions in building new infrastructure, although clearance to tiny, outdated neighborhoods in Beijing called hutongs resulted (Petrun). Jim Yardley, a New York Times reporter interviews Pan Jinyu, a 64-year-old local resident: âThey [the government] donât want foreigners to see this scarred old faceâ. Feng Shuqin and her husband, Zheng Zhanlin have lived in their house for 50 years and the family has owned the property before the Communists took control in 1949. The government, trying to clear the area, has offered them to move with a compensatory sum of $175,000 USD, but the family insists the land is worth $1.4 million USD (Yardley). Michael Meyer, an American who lives in the hutongs reported that a total of 500,000 residents were relocated from their homes before the Olympics began (Meyer).
To prepare for Olympic visitors, Beijing's transportation infrastructure was expanded. Beijing's airport underwent a major renovation with the addition of the new Terminal 3, designed by architect Norman Foster. Within the city itself, Beijing's subway was doubled in capacity and length, with the addition of 7 lines and 80 stations to the previously existing 4 lines and 64 stations. Included in this expansion was a new link connecting to the city's airport. A fleet of thousands of buses, minibuses, and official cars transported spectators, athletes, and officials between venues.
In an effort to improve air quality, the city placed restrictions on construction sites and gas stations, and limited the use of commercial and passenger vehicles in Beijing. From June 20 through September 20, passenger vehicle restrictions were placed on alternate days depending on the terminal digit of the car's license plate. It was anticipated that this measure would take 45% of Beijing's 3.3Â million cars off the streets. The boosted public transport network was expected to absorb the demand created by these restrictions and the influx of visitors, which was estimated at more than 4Â million additional passengers per day.
The 2008 Summer Olympics emblem was known as Dancing Beijing. The emblem combined a traditional Chinese red seal and a representation of the calligraphic character jÄ«ng (äº¬, "national capital", also the second character of Beijing's Chinese name) with athletic features. The open arms of the calligraphic word symbolised the invitation from China to the world to share in its culture. IOC president Jacques Rogge was very happy with the emblem, saying, "Your new emblem immediately conveys the awesome beauty and power of China which are embodied in your heritage and your people."
The official motto for the 2008 Olympics was "One World, One Dream" (åä¸ä¸ªä¸ç åä¸ä¸ªæ¢¦æ³). It called upon the whole world to join in the Olympic spirit and build a better future for humanity, and was chosen from over 210,000 entries submitted from around the world. Following the announcement of the motto, the phrase was used by international advocates of Tibetan secession. Banners reading "One World, One Dream, Free Tibet" were unfurled from various structures around the globe in the lead up to the Beijing Olympics, such as from the San Francisco Golden Gate Bridge and the Sydney Opera House in Australia.
The mascots of Beijing 2008 were the five Fuwa, each representing both a colour of the Olympic rings and a symbol of Chinese culture. In 2006, the Beijing Organizing Committee released pictograms of 35 Olympic disciplines (for some multi-discipline sports, such as cycling, a single pictogram was released). This set of sport icons was named the beauty of seal characters, because of each pictogram's likeness to Chinese seal script.
The 2008 Games were the first to be produced and broadcast entirely in high definition by the host broadcaster. In comparison, American broadcaster NBC broadcast only half of the 2006 Turin Winter Games in HD. In their bid for the Olympic Games in 2001, Beijing stated to the Olympic Evaluation Commission that there would be, "[N]o restrictions on media reporting and movement of journalists up to and including the Olympic Games." However, some media outlets claimed that organizers ultimately failed to live up to this commitment.
According to Nielsen Media Research, 4.7Â billion viewers worldwide tuned into some of the television coverage, one-fifth larger than the 3.9Â billion who watched the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens. American broadcaster NBC produced only 2Â hours of online streaming video for the 2006 Winter Games but produced approximately 2,200Â hours of coverage for the 2008 Summer Games. CNN reported that, for the first time, "live online video rights in some markets for the Olympics have been separately negotiated, not part of the overall 'broadcast rights.'" The new media of the digital economy was said to be growing "nine times faster than the rest of the advertising market."
The international European Broadcasting Union (EBU) provided live coverage and highlights of all arenas only for certain territories on their website, Eurovisionsports.tv. Many national broadcasters likewise restricted the viewing of online events to their domestic audiences. The General National Copyright Administration of China announced that "individual (sic) and websites will face fines as high as 100,000 yuan for uploading recordings of Olympic Games video to the internet", part of an extensive campaign to protect the pertinent intellectual property rights. The Olympic Committee also set up a separate YouTube channel at Beijing 2008.
The design of the 2008 Olympic Torch was based on traditional scrolls and used a traditional Chinese design known as the "Propitious Clouds" (ç¥¥äº'). The torch was designed to remain lit in 65Â km/h (40Â mph) winds, and in rain of up to 50Â mm (2Â in) per hour.
The relay, with the theme "Journey of Harmony", was met with protests and demonstrations by pro-Tibet supporters throughout its journey. It lasted 130Â days and carried the torch 137,000Â km (85,000Â mi)â"the longest distance of any Olympic torch relay since the tradition began at the 1936 Berlin Games. The torch relay was described as a "public relations disaster" for China by USA Today, with protests against China's human rights record, particularly focused on Tibet. The IOC subsequently barred future Olympics organizers from staging international torch relays.
The relay began March 24, 2008, in Olympia, Greece. From there, it traveled across Greece to Panathinaiko Stadium in Athens, and then to Beijing, arriving on March 31. From Beijing, the torch followed a route passing through every continent except Antarctica. The torch visited cities on the Silk Road, symbolizing ancient links between China and the rest of the world. A total of 21,880 torchbearers were selected from around the world by various organizations and entities.
The international portion of the relay was problematic. The month-long world tour encountered wide-scale protests. After trouble in London involving attempts by protestors to put out the flame, the torch was extinguished in Paris the following day. The American leg in San Francisco on April 9 was altered without prior warning to avoid such disturbances, although there were still demonstrations along the original route. The relay was further delayed and simplified after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake hit western China.
The flame was carried to the top of Mount Everest on a 108Â km (67Â mi) long "highway" scaling the Tibetan side of the mountain, built especially for the relay. The $19.7Â million blacktop project spanned from Tingri County of XigazÃª Prefecture to the Everest Base Camp. In March 2008, China banned mountaineers from climbing its side of Mount Everest, and later persuaded the Nepalese government to close their side as well, officially citing environmental concerns. It also reflected concerns by the Chinese government that Tibet activists may try to disrupt its plans to carry the Olympic torch up the world's tallest peak.
The originally proposed route would have taken the torch through Taipei after leaving Vietnam and before heading for Hong Kong. However, the government of Taiwan (then led by the independence-leaning Democratic Progressive Party) objected to this proposal, claiming that this route would make the portion of the relay in Taiwan appear to be part of the torch's domestic journey through China, rather than a leg on the international route. This dispute, as well as Chinese demands that the flag and the national anthem of the Republic of China be banned along the route led the government of Taiwan to reject the proposal that it be part of the relay route, and the two sides of the Taiwan Strait subsequently blamed each other for injecting politics into the event.
- All times are in China Standard Time (UTC+8)
In the following calendar for the 2008 Olympic Games, each blue box represents an event competition, such as a qualification round, on that day. The yellow boxes represent days during which medal-awarding finals for a sport were held. Each bullet in these boxes is an event final, the number of bullets per box representing the number of finals that were contested on that day. On the left the calendar lists each sport with events held during the Games, and at the right how many gold medals were won in that sport. There is a key at the top of the calendar to aid the reader.
Olympic and world records
125 Olympic records including 37 world records were set in various events at the Games. In swimming, sixty-five Olympic swimming records including 25 world records were broken due to the use of the LZR Racer, a specialised swimming suit developed by NASA and the Australian Institute of Sport. Only two swimming Olympic records remained intact after the Games.
The opening ceremony officially began at 8:00 pm China Standard Time (UTC+8) on August 8, 2008 in the Beijing National Stadium. The number 8 is associated with prosperity and confidence in Chinese culture, and here it was a triple eight for the date and one extra for time (close to 08:08:08Â pm). The ceremony was co-directed by Chinese filmmaker Zhang Yimou and Chinese choreographer Zhang Jigang and featured a cast of over 15,000 performers. The ceremony lasted over four hours and was reported to have cost over US$100 million to produce.
A rich assembly of ancient Chinese art and culture dominated the ceremony. It opened with the beating of Fou drums for the countdown. Subsequently, a giant scroll was unveiled and became the show's centerpiece. The official song of the 2008 Olympics, titled "You and Me", was performed by Britain's Sarah Brightman and China's Liu Huan, on a large spinning rendition of the globe. The last recipient in the Olympic Torch relay, former Chinese gymnast Li Ning ignited the cauldron, after being suspended into the air by wires and completing a lap of the National Stadium at roof height.
The opening ceremony was lauded by spectators and various international presses as "spectacular" and "spellbinding". Hein Verbruggen, chairman of the IOC Coordination Commission for the XXIX Olympiad, called the ceremony "a grand, unprecedented success."
The program for the Beijing Games was quite similar to that of the 2004 Summer Olympics held in Athens. There were 28 sports and 302 events at the 2008 Games. Nine new events were held, including two from the new cycling discipline of BMX. Women competed in the 3000Â metre steeplechase for the first time. Open water swimming events for men and women, over the distance of 10 kilometres (6.2Â mi), were added to the swimming discipline. Team events (men and women) in table tennis replaced the doubles events. In fencing, women's team foil and women's team sabre replaced men's team foil and women's team Ã©pÃ©e. Two sports were open only to men, baseball and boxing, while one sport and one discipline were open only to women, softball and synchronized swimming. Equestrian and mixed badminton are the only sports in which men and women compete together.
The following were the 302 events in 28 sports that were contested at the Games. The number of events contested in each sport is indicated in parentheses (in sports with more than one discipline, as identified by the IOC, these are also specified).
In addition to the official Olympic sports, the Beijing Organising Committee was given special dispensation by the IOC to run a wushu competition in parallel to the Games. The Wushu Tournament Beijing 2008 saw 128 athletes from 43 countries participate, with medals awarded in 15 separate events; however, these were not to be added to the official medal tally since Wushu was not on the programme of the 2008 Olympic Games.
The 2008 Summer Olympics Closing Ceremony concluded the Beijing Games on August 24, 2008. It began at 8:00Â pm China Standard Time (UTC+8), and took place at the Beijing National Stadium.
The Ceremony included handover of the Games from Beijing to London. Guo Jinlong, the Mayor of Beijing handed over the Olympic flag to the Mayor of London Boris Johnson, followed by a performance organized by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games (LOCOG). This presentation included performances by guitarist Jimmy Page, and recording artist Leona Lewis. Footballer David Beckham was also featured during London's presentation.
Eighty-seven nations earned medals, 54 of which won gold medals, both setting new records for Olympic Games. 118 participating countries did not win a medal. Athletes from China won 51 gold medals, the most of any nation at these Olympics, becoming the first nation other than the United States and Russia (Soviet Union) to lead in medals since Germany at the 1936 Summer Olympics. The United States team won the most medals overall, with 110. Afghanistan, Mauritius, Sudan, Tajikistan and Togo won their first Olympic medals. Athletes from Mongolia (which previously held the record for most medals without a gold) and Panama won their nation's first gold medals. An athlete from Serbia won its first medal under that name, having previously won medals as part of Yugoslavia and Serbia and Montenegro.
American swimmer Michael Phelps received a total of eight gold medals, more than any other Olympian, setting numerous world and Olympic records in the process. Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt also set records in multiple events, completing the 100 m final with a time of 9.69 seconds, surpassing his own previous world record. Russian-born American gymnast Nastia Liukin won the all-around gold medal in artistic gymnastics, becoming the third American woman to do so, following Mary Lou Retton in 1984 and Carly Patterson in 2004.
These are the top ten nations that won medals in the 2008 Games.
Participating National Olympic Committees
All but one of the 205 recognized National Olympic Committees (NOCs) that existed as of 2008 participated in the 2008 Summer Olympics, the exception being Brunei. Three countries participated in the Olympic Games for their first time: the Marshall Islands, Montenegro and Tuvalu.
While not a full member recognized by the IOC and thus not allowed to compete formally in the Olympics, the Macau Sports and Olympic Committee sent a delegation to participate in the Wushu Tournament Beijing 2008, being the only unrecognized National Olympic Committee to have taken part in the 2008 Summer Olympics. It also coordinated efforts with the Chinese Olympic Committee to organize the torch relay through Macau.
The Marshall Islands and Tuvalu gained National Olympic Committee status in 2006 and 2007 respectively, and 2008 was the first games in which they were eligible to participate. The states of Serbia and Montenegro, which participated at the 2004 Games jointly as Serbia and Montenegro, competed separately for the first time. The Montenegrin Olympic Committee was accepted as a new National Olympic Committee in 2007. Neighboring Kosovo, however, did not participate. After the declaration of independence in Kosovo, the IOC specified requirements that Kosovo needs to meet before being recognised by the IOC; most notably, it has to be recognised as independent by the United Nations. China and the United States had the largest teams, with 639 athletes for China and 596 for the United States.
More than 100 sovereigns, heads of state and heads of government as well as 170 Ministers of Sport attended the Beijing Olympic Games.
National participation changes
Athletes from the Republic of China (Taiwan) competed at the 2008 Games as Chinese Taipei (TPE) under the Chinese Taipei Olympic flag and using the National Banner Song as their official anthem. The participation of Taiwan was briefly in doubt because of disagreements over the name of their team in the Chinese language and concerns about Taiwan marching in the Opening Ceremony next to the special administrative region of Hong Kong. A compromise on the naming was reached, and Taiwan was referred to during the games as "Chinese Taipei," rather than "China-Taipei," as the mainland China government had proposed. In addition, the Central African Republic was placed between Chinese Taipei and the Special Administrative Regions during the march of nations.
Starting in 2005, North Korea and South Korea held meetings to discuss the possibility of sending a united team to the 2008 Olympics. The proposal failed, because of disagreements about how athletes would be chosen; North Korea was demanding a certain percentage representation for its athletes. A subsequent attempt to broker an agreement for the two nations to walk together during the March of Nations failed as well, despite their having done so during the 2000 and 2004 Games.
On July 24, 2008, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) banned Iraq from competing in the 2008 Olympic Summer Games because of "political interference by the government in sports." The IOC reversed its decision five days later and allowed the nation to compete after a pledge by Iraq to ensure "the independence of its national Olympics panel" by instituting fair elections before the end of November. In the meantime, Iraq's Olympic Organisation was run by "an interim committee proposed by its national sports federations and approved by the IOC."
Brunei Darussalam was due to take part in the 2008 Summer Olympic Games. However, they were disqualified on August 8, having failed to register either of their two athletes. The IOC spokeswoman Emmanuelle Moreau said in a statement that "it is a great shame and very sad for the athletes who lose out because of the decision by their team not to register them. The IOC tried up until the last minute, midday Friday August 8, 2008, the day of the official opening, to have them register, but to no avail." Brunei's Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports issued a press release stating that their decision not to participate was due to an injury to one of their athletes.
Georgia announced on August 9, 2008, that it was considering withdrawing from the Beijing Olympic Games because of the 2008 South Ossetia war, but it went on to compete while the conflict was still ongoing.
Participation of athletes with disabilities
South African swimmer Natalie du Toit, whose left leg was amputated following a motor scooter accident, qualified to compete at the Beijing Olympics. The five time gold medalist at the Athens Paralympics in 2004 made history by becoming the first amputee to qualify for the Olympic Games since OlivÃ©r Halassy in 1936. She was able to compete in the Olympics rather than the Paralympics because she does not use a prosthetic leg while swimming. Polish athlete Natalia Partyka, who was born without a right forearm, competed in Table Tennis in both the 2008 Olympic Games and 2008 Paralympic Games.
Concerns and controversies
A variety of concerns over the Games, or China's hosting of the Games, had been expressed by various entities, including allegations that China violated its pledge to allow open media access, various alleged human rights violations, its continuous support of repressive regimes (such as Zimbabwe, Burma, Sudan and North Korea), air pollution in both the city of Beijing and in neighbouring areas, proposed boycotts, warnings of the possibility that the Beijing Olympics could be targeted by terrorist groups, disruption from pro-Tibetan protesters, and religious persecutions.
There were also reports that several members of China's women's gymnastics team, including double gold medal winner He Kexin, were too young to compete under the FÃ©dÃ©ration Internationale de Gymnastique's rules for Olympic eligibility, but all were exonerated after an official IOC investigation.
In the lead-up to the Olympics, the government allegedly issued guidelines to the local media for their reporting during the Games: most political issues not directly related to the games were to be downplayed; topics such as pro-Tibetan independence and East Turkestan movements were not to be reported on, as were food safety issues such as "cancer-causing mineral water." As the 2008 Chinese milk scandal broke in September 2008, there was widespread speculation that China's desire for a perfect Games may have been a factor contributing towards the delayed recall of contaminated infant formula.
The 2008 Olympic Games have been generally accepted by the world's media as a logistical success. Many of the worst fears about the games failed to materialize: no terrorists struck Beijing; no athlete protested at the podium (though Swedish wrestler Ara Abrahamian tossed his bronze medal in disgust over judging), and the air quality â" due largely to favorable weather patterns â" was not as bad as many had feared beforehand despite being the worst in Olympics history. Hopes that hosting the Games would lead to improvements in human rights protections and rule of law in China, however, went unfulfilled.
Many in China viewed the Olympics as "an affirmation of a single nationalistic dream" and saw protests during the international torch relay as an insult to China. The Games also bolstered domestic support for the Chinese government, and for the policies of the Communist Party, giving rise to concerns that the Olympics would give the state more leverage to suppress political dissent, at least temporarily. Efforts to quell any unrest before and during the Games also contributed to a rapid expansion in the size and political clout of China's internal security forces, and this growth continued through the following years. Reports also indicated that the Olympics boosted the political careers of pro-Beijing politicians in Hong Kong, as many Chinese gold medal winners campaigned on behalf of the pro-Beijing DAB during the 2008 election, although any trend towards greater identification by Hong Kongers with Mainland China appears to have been short-lived.
The long-term economic impact of the games on China and Beijing in particular is not yet clear. Some sectors of the economy may have benefited from the influx of tourists, and other sectors such as manufacturing lost revenue because of plant closings related to the government's efforts to improve air quality. Four years after the Games, many of the specially constructed facilities were underused or even deserted. It is generally expected by economists that there will be no lasting effects on Beijing's economy from the games.
- 2008 Summer Paralympics
- Summer Olympic Games
- Olympic Games
- International Olympic Committee
- List of IOC country codes
- Doping the Olympic Games â" 2008 Beijing
- a Although the games officially began on August 8, 2008, the first football games were held on August 6.
- b The other two instances were the 1956 games, where the equestrian events were hosted in Stockholm, Sweden, because of strict Australian quarantine rules, and the other events were hosted in Melbourne, Australia; and the 1920 games which were hosted in Antwerp, Belgium, but the final two races of the 12Â ft (3.7Â m) dinghy event in sailing were held in the Netherlands.
- c The New York Times, for instance, said that "these promises, were contradicted by strict visa rules, lengthy application processes and worries about censorship."
- d The fencing programme included six individual events and four team events, though the team events were a different set than were held in 2004. The International Fencing Federation's rules call for events not held in the previous Games to receive automatic selection and for at least one team event in each weapon to be held. Voting is conducted to determine the fourth event. In 2004, the three men's team events and the women's Ã©pÃ©e were held. Thus, in 2008, the women's foil and sabre events and men's Ã©pÃ©e were automatically selected. Men's sabre was chosen over foil by a 45â"20 vote.
- 2008 Summer Olympics Official Site at the Wayback Machine (archived October 12, 2008)
- Beijing Olympic Sites Four Years Later â" What Remains at Modern Day Ruins
- "Beijing 2008". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.Â